The Paroikos Bible Blog exists as a resource to those interested in Biblical studies and Koine Greek. It is hoped that this blog will simultaneously provide food-for-thought to the reader while pointing him or her in the direction of valuable resources, both in print and on the internet, that will further help his or her studies in the Word.

Feb 19, 2015

Hermeneutics: The Two Great Dangers, The Law of Hermeneutical Authority, and Resources for the Student and Teacher

Of all the classes I've had the privilege of teaching, I am by far the most passionate about Hermeneutics (which, I'm happy to report, is required for all college students here at BCM, both guys and gals, as is Greek). I strongly hold to the presupposition that we can understand God's Word as it was meant to be understood, but that on the other hand it will usually take some work. Thus a little child can understand John 3:16 in any modern translation and trust Christ, while a myriad of scholars will write a cornucopia of academic articles on what in the world "Saved Through Childbearing" means (1 Tim 2:15; and even the Apostle Peter admitted that the Apostle Paul could be difficult to understand--2 Peter 3:16).

The ultimate goal of Hermeneutics is to understand the Word of God. Yet in the process, two great dangers (even sins, if we're not careful) loom in front of us. On the one hand, we must avoid at all costs the devil's trap of asking "Has God really said  . .?" if, indeed, God has clearly spoken (Genesis 3:1). Yet the other side of the coin is that we must absolutely avoid saying "Thus saith the Lord" if God has not spoken! In other words, the danger of Ezekiel 22:28 is just as serious as Genesis 3:1. To claim to speak God's Word on a topic while distorting the actual meaning can be just as serious as outright ignoring what God has said.

If God's Word truly is sacred yet occasionally difficult, we can expect various levels of disagreements on the adiaphora, the non-essentials. Nevertheless, no excuse exists for misinterpreting God's Word through lack of study or exalting one's own opinions over the plain sense of Scripture. The ultimate example of hermeneutical incompetence, and one that I show to my students, is the popular YouTube clip arguing from the alleged Aramaic behind Luke 10:18 that President Obama is the Antichrist (no, I am not making that up).

Bad hermeneutics, though, can have more serious consequences than just another round of "let's name the Antichrist or date the rapture." Second Timothy 2:15-18 seems to imply that a failure to "rightly divide" God's Word leads to the errors of Hymenaeus and Philetus, who began to teach seriously wrong theology. Consequently, I am stressing to my students something I call the "Law of Hermeneutical Authority"—namely "The authority of your claim that 'Thus says the Lord' is diminished in direct proportion to your mishandling of the meaning or application of a passage of Scripture." In other words, dear students of Scripture (and I speak to myself here as well), you cannot make dogmatic claims on meaning or application if you are manhandling the Word of God to suit your needs or opinions. God's Word is authoritative when it is properly understood. Quoting Scripture is cheap; anybody can do that (as does the devil himself, as well as his human minions). The question is: are we understanding this particular passage in Scripture as it was meant to be understood? If not, there goes any claim to authority on that passage. (At this point I will briefly stress the difference between "meaning" and "significance"--the former will always stay the same, while the latter may change to a certain degree from person to person, and sometimes as the Spirit leads, but it will always be grounded on the former).

This does not mean that anybody is perfect! All of us, at some (or many) points in our lives, will definitely mess up in our interpretation. Jesus Christ remains the only infallible interpreter of the Word (after all, he is the Word). Nevertheless, we must cultivate an attitude of respect towards the Bible, coupled with a determination to study matters out.

With that in mind, I'd like to share with my readers some of the resources that have been a great help to me in teaching this class.

First of all, our main textbook is Grasping God's Word, by Duvall and Hays (3rd ed.; Zondervan, 2012). This book is easily-readable, meant for college students--not technical, yet solid and very practical. Unlike the majority of textbooks out there, it actually has an entire chapter on the Holy Spirit! (Definitely a point in its favor). Furthermore, this book truly resonated with a lot of what I personally wanted to stress in class. I do disagree with much of chapter 1 (being a Byzantine-text guy, among other things), but this could not even come close to deterring me from requiring this excellent book for my students.

I am also requiring my students to read all of the fantastic Scripture Twisting by James Sire. This book does a very competent job of exposing the hermeneutical fallacies of cults and extreme fringe groups; the discussion on "Worldview Confusion" is especially helpful.

For my own personal study, I made it a point to purchase both Cracking Old Testament Codes (eds. Sandy and Giese) and A Complete Literary Guide to the Bible (eds. Ryken and Longman) since we will be covering a lot of material on genre in the class (as well as backgrounds, language, theology, etc.)

One book that has surprisingly challenged me in an "outside-of-the-box" kind of way is Peter J. Leithart's Deep Exegesis: The Mystery of Reading Scripture. If you, dear reader, feel that you have a basic grasp of hermeneutics, and you already own Grasping God's Word or something similar, then go ahead and buy Leithart's Deep Exegesis—it will make you think!

Some other useful sources: Grant Osborne's The Hermeneutical Spiral is considered a classic for seminary-level work.  For those of a more dispensational persuasion, Roy B. Zuck's Basic Bible Interpretation is very helpful (and was the textbook of choice with the previous teacher of BCM's hermeneutics class), while Graeme Goldsworthy's Gospel-Centered Hermeneutics is a bit more of a reformed persuasion, though both Zuck and Goldsworthy would be worthy additions to your library and have their own strengths. Also, Introduction to Biblical Interpretation, by Klein, Blomberg, and Hubbard, is a useful book; for advanced studies, I must needs put a plug in for Invitation to Biblical Interpretation by Andreas J. Köstenberger and Richard D. Patterson.

Though most of the students will probably have taken Greek by the time they get to class (but very few will have had Hebrew, which I also teach at BCM), I will be showing them how to do very simple word studies via Strong's numbers (while stressing that meaning is derived from both context and semantic range, not either in isolation). For backgrounds, I am pointing them to the various excellent sources out there, including Second Temple literature and other primary sources (for secondary sources, I am especially fond of The New Testament in Antiquity by Cohick, Green, and Burge, and Backgrounds of Early Christianity by Everett Ferguson).

Naturally, NT use of the OT, a sub-division of hermeneutics, has a whole host of books that you should be aware of; nevertheless, that is another post for another time.

Ideally, a knowledge of Hermeneutics should go hand-in-hand with competency in Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic. Nonetheless, hermeneutics is the foundational class; it will not matter how well you know the original languages if you fail to treat Scripture and its original authors (both divine and human) with the respect and reverence they deserves. Hermeneutics does not give you all the answers, but it does teach you which questions to ask!

Feb 5, 2015

For those thinking they might be interested in a doctorate . . .

The internet abounds in advice for prospective doctoral students in Biblical studies, and some books are bouncing around out there as well (see, for example, the fine work by Nijay Gupta, Prepare, Succeed, Advance). Nevertheless, a couple of conversations I've had with students lately have convinced me to add my own two cents to the mix (keep in mind, dear reader, every experience is different, and my perspective is necessarily colored by my educational background!).

Background--I am very fortunate and blessed. I'm not the brightest bulb in the chandelier, and Theological German totally humbled me, but nevertheless I graduated with a Ph.D. in New Testament at Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary under scholar David Alan Black, had my dissertation published by Wipf&Stock, and today am teaching some bright young kids [can I call them that? Sounds weird, I'm only 34] at a Bible college.

Before we get started, please understand that a Ph.D. (at least in the States) is, minimum, a 3-year degree, but more likely a 4-5 year degree. I took 5 years for mine: 2-3 for the classwork, over half a year for comps and prospectus, and roughly 2 and a half for actually researching and writing my dissertation--I was slowed down a bit by deciding to re-write my prospectus, but that actually worked out for the better.

First of all, pray and seek the Lord's will--I happen to hold to the audacious idea that the Lord actually cares what we do with our life, and that he will lead and direct us. At the very least, we should avoid boasting "Tomorrow I will go to such-and-such a school, write a killer dissertation that rocks the scholarly world, and gain many accolades!" Such an attitude is simply asking for trouble (James 4:13-17). For myself, I began seriously praying about the Lord's will in a teaching career somewhere around my junior year in college. From there on out, the Lord providentially directed me down the right path, for which I am grateful.

Secondly, give heed to your grades. For most of us, our grades probably get better as we go along (studying the subjects we wish to study!). It should go without saying, however, that if you are only getting consistent B's in an MA or M.Div., you need to seriously buckle down and work harder. A "B" is frowned on in doctoral studies (though not unforgivable). At Southeastern, a "C"would result in a meeting, and a second "C" resulted in an automatic dismissal, as I recall. So if you're struggling with getting top-notch grades in either college or grad school (especially the latter), I have just one question for you: "If the footman tire you, what of the horseman?"

Thirdly, schools matter (but not as much as you might think): I went to a small independent Baptist college, then a very small (but accredited) independent Baptist seminary, and by the Lord's grace was able to study under some of the top New Testament scholars at one of the largest Protestant seminaries in America for a Ph.D. Now, I teach at a small independent Baptist Bible college that is not accredited; nevertheless, I work with some bright young souls who love Jesus and for whom a doctorate might open up special avenues of ministry. On the one hand, accreditation matters (I was asked point-blank about my school's accreditation when applying at Southeastern), yet nevertheless it is not the ultimate decision-maker. A good friend of mine is research assistant to a top NT scholar, yet only had TRACS accreditation [which is usually not too highly regarded], though he did have a Th.M. (which helped). One of my old profs did not have an accredited degree, but was accepted to Trinity's doctoral program on the second attempt after putting together a killer application which included, if I remember correctly, a state senator for a reference! (he defended successfully and has taught for 20+ years).

Having said that, to get into a top-tier school such as Duke or Princeton, you will need more than a degree from "Bubba Himes' Backyard Seminary and Garage Sale," no matter how good your referents! In some cases, you might have to be willing to take an extra MA from your target institution just to qualify. A lot of it will depend on denominational affiliation and contacts. Once again, if the Lord desires you to get a Ph.D., he will direct.

If you feel that your M.A. or M.Div. will not be adequate to get you into a good doctoral program (i.e., something other than "Bubba Himes' "Pay-me-by-credit-card-online-and-write-on-a-bunch-of-stuff then-print-out-your-degree" seminary), then consider pursuing a thesis-based Th.M. from a different school to increase the chances of being accepted. This will introduce you to higher-level research while significantly beefing up your application. A Th.M., from what I understand, will probably take 2 years though is doable in less (a year for classwork and a year for writing).

Fourthly, be well read. You should not be considering pursuing a Ph.D. in New Testament if you don't know anything about the Verbal Aspect Theory debate. If the Gospels are your passion, make sure you know who B. H. Streeter and J. Griesbach are. Don't expect to study theology at the highest level if you've never cracked open Karl Barth. As a side-note, you should be pouring in a lot of energy into the original languages (at least for Biblical studies majors)--my entrance exam for Southeastern involved sight-translating a passage in Greek and parsing every verb, with no helps at all.

Fifthly, study the schools, and be familiar with the major movers and shakers within each school. Before stepping foot on Southeastern, I had read material by Black, Robinson, and Andreas Kostenberger (and after I got there I was influenced by the other scholars). Do not even think about applying to Duke unless you know who Richard Hayes is (and have read some of his material). If you wish to study New Testament or Greek at Dallas, be thoroughly familiar with the work of both Daniel Wallace and Darrell Bock (among others). Know the strengths of each school--for many, Westminster Theological Seminary is the school of choice for apologetics. Trinity and Wheaton are probably well-balanced in all areas. I felt Southeastern had fantastic opportunities in New Testament (Greek, Biblical Theology, and Textual Criticism), which is why I applied there. If you wish to study Dispensational Theology, then Dallas is probably your best choice. You should also be considering European schools and their strengths (though with a somewhat different model of study--others, including my Doktorvater--blog about this, and they know more than I do)

However, with that in mind, please know that it's the scholar, not the school. At the doctoral level, you must decide who you wish to study under and why! For me, my targets were always either Dr. David Alan Black or Dr. Maurice Robinson. I was privileged to work under both of them: I had Dr. Black as my Doktorvater, and I worked as grader and occasional substitute teacher for Dr. Robinson. Nevertheless, ultimately I was applying to study under a person, first and foremost (though the sad irony is that I never actually got to take a class under Dr. Black, other than official mentorship; nevertheless, what I got was better than a class).

One more small point--have a solid financial plan! I didn't, and it hurt me in the long run (though--news flash!--the Lord always provides and keeps me from starving!)

For those with more questions, feel free to e-mail me, and I'll try to assist from my limited perspective. Hopefully, in the future I'll post on actually surviving the doctoral program itself.

Jan 16, 2015

Some Resources for Studying and Teaching the Pastoral Epistles (and Some Odds and Ends)

How many professors can claim that they co-taught a class with their father? Yet this is exactly what I had the privilege of doing in December. In our 4th block (a two-week block), my father, retired missionary John Rice Himes, and I taught an upper-level college class on the Pastoral Epistles. Below are some excellent resources for studying this trio of books.

But first, some odds and ends! These past few weeks I have been working through two very unique and fascinating books. First of all, Markus Barth and Verne H. Fletcher, a long time ago and in a different era, wrote an under-recognized and sadly neglected monograph called Acquittal by Resurrection: Freedom, Law, and Justice in the Light of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1964). The book focuses on, among other things, the primacy of Christ's resurrection within the doctrine of justification (both Christ's and ours). The authors try to make their thesis apply to modern ethics, as well (though the discussion of capital punishment is, I believe, more convincing when applied directly to believers rather than society as a whole). Furthermore, the first chapter or so interacts with various modernistic views of the resurrection and does an excellent job of dismantling them (with plenty of quotable material).

Secondly, in two weeks I will begin to teach Hermeneutics, a class about which I am wildly excited (like a kid in a chocolate factory, I've been telling folks!) My textbooks are Grasping God's Word by Duvall and Hays, together with Scripture Twisting by James Sire. However, in preparation for this class, I've been reading and been greatly challenged by Peter Leithart's Deep Exegesis: The Mystery of Reading Scripture (Waco, Tex.: Baylor University Press, 2009). A couple comments. First of all, Leithart is a very good writer. Not many writers can make reading theological and biblical studies a pleasure, but Leithart does that. Secondly, Deep Exegesis is provocative: it's making me think outside my comfort zone! His treatment of Matthew's "Out of Egypt I have called my Son" citation has really made me stop and ponder. Finally, I really think Leithart takes a few good points and then overextends them. In particular, I think he needs to better nuance "meaning vs. significance" (though it is in the discussion of post-event significance that this book really gets interesting), as well as offer at least some-safe guards regarding personal interpretation. Having said that, I am very, very grateful that I got this book before I started teaching, since it's turning out to be extremely interesting and thought-provoking.

Anyways, on to the Pastorals! My own contribution to Pastorals scholarship is just one article on the imperatives in the Pastorals (Filologia Neotestamentaria vol. 23, 2010). However, I did have the privilege of taking the class at the doctoral level with Dr. Benjamin Merkle, who has published quite a bit on the topic (I especially recommend his article in Bibliotheca Sacra, vol. 121, "Are the Qualifications for Elders or Overseers Negotiable?") By the way, check out my friend Chuck Bumgardner's blog at this link Chuck is currently doing doctoral work on the pastorals under the mentorship of Dr. Andreas Köstenberger, and he quite often posts helpful material on the PE).

First off, our textbook for these college students was the very accessible Tyndale New Testament commentary by Donald Guthrie. It's a bit dated, but is still an excellent blend of accessible scholarship and theological discussiion, thus suited for Bible college students. I would recommend it to any Christians who do not have a theological degree yet are interested in studying these three books.

In addition, I highly recommended the following three commentaries to my students (these are, in my opinion, the "big three" of evangelical commentaries): William Mounce's Word Biblical Commentary (WBC); George W. Knight III's New International Greek Testament Commentary (NIGTC); and Philip H. Towner's New International Commentary on the New Testament (NICNT). A close fourth (though possibly more influential) is I. Howard Marshall's International Critical Commentary (ICC). I would also mention Dr. Andreas Köstenberger's commentary in the revised Expositor's Bible Commentary.

As far as articles and monographs, in addition to Dr. Merkle's article mentioned above, I would first and foremost recommend the excellent article by John K. Goodrich, "Overseers as Stewards and the Qualifications for Leadership in the Pastoral Epistles." Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 104 (2013): 77-97. Basically Dr. Goodrich reads the lists of pastoral virtues in light of the role of the overseer in ancient Greco-Roman society. I really think he's onto something here, and I required all of the students to read and discuss it. In addition, I would draw your attention to Andrew B. Spurgeon, "1 Timothy 2:13-15: Paul's Retelling of Genesis 2:4-4:1" in JETS 56 (2013). I know, I know, "not another article on saved-through-childbearing?! When will it ever end!" Nevertheless, this one almost has me convinced. Spurgeon draws heavily from the interrelation of Adam, Eve, and God in Genesis 2 to conclude that "saved through childbearing" actually refers to the reconciliation of Adam and Eve through God's graciousness (i.e., it answers the question--why would a woman ever want to have children after the curse?) I can't do it justice in a short blog post, but it's worth reading (for me, 1 Timothy 2:15 remains "the toughest verse ever," which is why I intend to include it on next semester's Hermeneutics final exam, bwahahahahah!!).

A couple books worth mentioning, very quickly. Entrusted with the Gospel: Paul's Theology in the Pastoral Epistles, eds. by Andreas J. Köstenberger and Terry L. Wilder has a host of helpful articles by various authors. In addition, Ray Van Neste, Cohesion and Structure in the Pastoral Epistles (JSNTSup 280; London: T&T Clark, 2004) has become very influential among evangelical scholars. Finally, I would also mention George W. Knight's The Faithful Sayings in the Pastoral Epistles (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker 1979), an older but very significant monograph.

Dec 18, 2014

Resources for Studying and Teaching the Epistle to the Hebrews

Updated 1/13/15, some corrections made
During my doctoral studies, I had the privilege of taking the Epistle to the Hebrews with George Guthrie from Union University (Jackson, Tennessee). How I have the fantastic experience of going through a directed study with one of the seminary students here at BCM. So, what am I requiring him to read and what should you, dear reader, give heed to for serious study of this great epistle written by Apollos . . . I mean "nobody knows," though my good Doktorvater can make a persuasive argument for Pauline authorship--yes, there is still a remnant! :)

Anyways, at this point in time, it seems the near unanimous consensus of conservative scholars is that Peter O'Brian's Pillar NT commentary on Hebrews is currently the cat's meow, i.e. the best! And so far I've been fairly impressed--so if you have limited funds and can only afford one commentary, this may be your best bet.

However, I'm also partial to my teacher, Dr. Guthrie's own NIV Application Commentary (don't let the series title irk you; this is one of the rare commentary series that actually cares about the spiritual well-being of the reader/student). In addition, F. F. Bruce in the NICNT is considered a classic. Also worth mentioning is Donald Guthrie in the always-accessible Tyndale series. Another notable within conservative scholarship would be David Allen in the NAC series (though I can't speak for this particular commentary, I have a very high open of the NAC series in general--however, one colleague at BCM told me that he felt Allen's discussion of possible Lukan authorship was very persuasive).

For more rigorous study, the three top critical/technical commentaries are (in my opinion): William Lane (WBC), Harold Attridge (Hermeneia), and, for the truly adventurous, Ceslas Spicq's two-volume French commentary.

By the way, I'm requiring my student to read all of O'Brian's, as well as some of Lane's and George Guthrie's commentaries, In addition, my student was asked to do a book review on one of these three worthy monographs: George Guthrie on The Structure of Hebrews: A Text-Linguistic Analysis, L. D. Hurst, The Epistle to the Hebrews: Its Background and Thought, or David Allan's Lukan Authorship of Hebrews. (He chose Allan on Lukan Authorship; looking forward to seeing what he has to write).

Here are some other worthy monographs: David Alan Black, The Authorship of Hebrews [if you want to read a defense of Pauline authorship, you'll have to read either my Doktorvater or Eta Linnemann; but there is still a remnant!]; Albert Vanhoye, La Structure Littéraire de L'épître aux Hébreaux [note: this is an extremely influential text!]; and David DeSilva's The Letter to the Hebrews in Social-Scientific Perspective, which I am currently reading. A book that I would like to get some day is Amy L. B. Peeler's You Are My Son: The Family of God in the Epistle to the Hebrews (currently 100 dollars on Amazon!)

As for articles (many of which are available for free online), I am having my student read the following: 
1. George H. Guthrie, "Hebrews in Its First-Century Contexts: Recent Research," pages 414-443 in The Face of New Testament Studies: A Survey of Recent Research (ed. Scot McKnight and Grant R. Osborne; Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Academic, 2004)--this essay gives you a good grasp of the history of scholarship in Hebrews. 
2. David Alan Black, "Literary Artistry in the Epistle to the Hebrews, Filologia Neotestamentaria 7 (1994) and David Alan Black, "The Problem of the Literary Structure of Hebrews: An Evaluation and a Proposal," Grace Theological Journal 7 (1986)
3. Harold W. Attridge, "'Let us Strive to Enter That Rest': The Logic of Hebrews 4:1-11," Harvard Theological Review 73 (Jan-April 1980) 
I felt those give my student a decent overview on the various issues involved in the study of the Epistle (and we have barely touched the warning passages yet! Speaking of which, you should be aware of the book Four Views on the Warning Passages of Hebrews, put out by Kregel and edited by Herbert Bateman IV).

This is barely scratching the surface of all the fantastic material out there on a fantastic epistle/homily! And, as a bonus, there's a brand new article coming out in the next JETS by Craig Allen Hill entitled "The Use of Perfection Language in Hebrews 5:14 and 6:1 and the Contextual Interpretation of 5:11-6:3." Looking forward to reading it.

Dec 4, 2014

The Original Languages: Primary Everywhere Except your Local Congregation (or: Some Odd Advice From a Biblical Languages Instructor)

I initially wanted to entitle this post "Take your Greek and Hebrew to Chapel, but not to Church," but that would not accurately reflect what I'm trying to say (I don't actually have a problem with anybody taking their Greek or Hebrew to church). Furthermore, let me just emphasize that Scripture in the original languages, Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic, is THE final authority, and no translation (no matter what language) has any right to equal authority (though naturally all translations have authority in the believer's life to the extent that they accurately reflect the meaning of the originals).

Furthermore, I have encouraged my Biblical Hebrew students to incorporate their Hebrew into their own personal daily study of Scripture (currently I'm trying to incorporate reading from Greek, Hebrew, English, and German Scriptures into my own study).

Here, however, is my point: the seminary student, within the local congregation, should be available to minister and serve alongside his or her brothers and sisters, and this is most easily done with a Bible in the same language as everybody else. You never know when you'll be called on for public reading of Scripture, or to council, etc. If you're in a Spanish-speaking church, and you can read Spanish, then bring a Spanish Bible and use it primarily. If you're in a South Korean church, bring a Korean Bible (to the extent that you can use it). If I were to visit Japan again, I would take my Japanese Bible and use it primarily anytime I was with Japanese believers. In other words, in that circumstance, the Japanese would trump the Greek and Hebrew, simply because I want to be a blessing to others. Naturally the Greek and Hebrew may be alongside, and I can refer to it as necessary, but I'll read from the Japanese.

We see this principle in the New Testament itself. When quoting the Scriptures, what did the Apostles and other divinely inspired authors use? The Septuagint, the version most likely available to the audience! Some exceptions exist (I'm convinced at one point Peter corrects the LXX to better reflect the Hebrew), but that's a story for another time.

Here's my point: when you are studying Scripture with others, in order to be a better blessing, be willing to read from the same language as them (and long-term missionaries--there is no excuse for not reading out of the Scriptures in the native language if you've been there a few years; may I just brag a bit on my doctoral adviser, mentioning that he's capable of reading Scripture out of what seems like a gajillion foreign languages, and his place of residence is still Virginia?).

Now, some people could translate on the fly, so I'm not necessarily talking to them; if you're called on to read Scripture publicly and it's not obvious that you have a different language in front of you, then this probably does not apply. This post is mostly directed as seminary students.

This is one of those bizarre posts that is less a resource for other Christians and more my own weird opinion. Just a thought, though; be willing to worship and read Scripture with other believers in their own language--take your Greek and Hebrew (they are the final authority for doctrine, after all), but don't be afraid to read along in the plain old English, Japanese, or Spanish!

Nov 20, 2014

Let's not swing the pendulum to far to the other side (or, why downplaying the individual component of the Gospel is a bad idea)

I will be the first to acknowledge, gladly, that the Gospel has an important communal/corporate component to it--we are saved into a new, holy nation (1 Peter 2:9), and we are not saved  for ourselves, but rather to glorify God in good works (Ephesians 2:10). Nevertheless, there has been some "blog-chatter" recently that is a bit critical of Gospel-talk that focuses on the individual. Now, granted, the expression "have a personal relationship with Jesus" is not a biblical expression per se, and reducing witness to a simple "receive your 'get-out-of-hell-free' card" would be a crime against the Gospel.

Having said that, first of all, the individual component of salvation permeates Scripture. For example, the expression "have a personal relationship with Jesus" may, when properly articulated, simply reflect the Biblical teaching about God knowing his children and us knowing [i.e., having a relationship with] him (e.g., Jeremiah 9:24; Nahum 1:7; 2 Timothy 2:19). Secondly, an individual's fear of judgment can indeed play a role in conversion--otherwise there would be significantly less warning of ultimate judgment in Scripture. So we see with the book of Jonah, assuming the conversion of Nineveh was genuine (and I see no reason to doubt the prima facie reading of the text, though the conversion of the city did not seem to have any long-term impact). In other words, "I'm afraid of God's righteous judgment and I want to have a relationship with Jesus" can very much play a role in conversion, though obviously the core understanding of the Gospel cannot be boiled down to that.

My point is this--there is both a personal and corporate component to the Gospel; you, individually, need to be "born again" [not a very "corporate" statement in John 3!], but this is not just about you! (Indeed, not even primarily about you) The Gospel results in joining a new "holy nation" and letting your light shine 
out  (together with a myriad of other lights) so all can see your good works and glorify God. Both the individual component and the corporate component are essential to our theology.

At the academic level of this discussion, let me recommend an excellent article by a friend of mine, Josh Chatraw, "Balancing Out (W)Right: Jesus' Theology of Individual and Corporate Repentance and Forgiveness in the Gospel of Luke," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 55 (June 2012): 299-322. [not yet available on-line]. N. T. Wright, of course, is one of the more well-known evangelical scholars, and has written a lot of fantastic material on the resurrection of Jesus (the one area where I would definitely recommend him, though he's always worth reading regardless of what he's writing on). Chatraw's basic point is simply that, while Wright has a healthy emphasis on "the corporate nature of repentance and forgiveness in the Gospels," nevertheless he has "swung the pendulum to far in the opposite direction with the effect of under emphasizing Jesus' teachings on individual repentance and forgiveness" (p. 300). 

I believe Chatraw's exegesis well supports his thesis, and I would suggest that this is a lesson to carry into the pulpit and the less-academic discussions as well. The Gospel has both an individual and corporate aspect--let's not neglect either!

Oct 6, 2014

Resources for studying and teaching Hebrew History (plus, a list of every single relevant JETS article)

This semester, my first semester at Baptist College of Ministry (Menomonee Falls, WI), I have the privilege of teaching Hebrew History, Elements of Hebrew Grammar, and English Composition and Rhetoric (the basic research class), along with a directed study with a seminary student on the Epistle to the Hebrews. For Hebrew History, I have taken to studying the topic with a vengeance, so much so that about a week ago I woke up in the middle of the night having been dreaming of the Assyrians! (It was not, need I mention, a pleasant dream?) Although Old Testament is certainly not my specialty, I have had a fantastic time compiling resources and lecturing and interacting with my class of 33. I figured this would be an excellent time to share with you, dear reader, what are some of the best texts to examine for Hebrew History (from Abraham to A.D. 70). In addition, I have compiled a list of every single relevant article from the Journal of the Evangelical Society (I did not use any search engines for this; I basically examined every single issue and typed out any relevant article).

Key Ancient Sources
Naturally, the Old Testament itself is your main text. If you can get ahold of the annals of the Assyrian or Babylonian Kings, these will occasionally be relevant. Naturally, for the 1st century, Josephus takes pride of place since he personally saw the Jewish War unfold and was intimately familiar with Jewish life and customs of that time. First and Second Maccabees (the latter is not a continuation of the former; they both tell the same story in a different way) remains essential for understanding the era after the division of Alexander the Great’s empire.  The Dead Sea Scrolls and various apocryphal books (e.g., Wisdom of Solomon), as well as Philo, can give you a window into Jewish thought (especially Alexandrian Jewish thought) of the first century and the years preceding it. By the way, as a guide to studying Jewish Second Temple Literature, may I recommend the fantastic book by Larry Helyer, Exploring Jewish literature of the Second Temple Period (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 2002).

Old Testament Theology
May I just mention here that Bruce Waltke and Charles Yu, An Old Testament Theology: An Exegetical, Canonical, and Thematic Approach. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2007, retains pride of place as one of the best Old Testament books I own? Seriously, folks, this book provides some fantastic theological insights into Israel’s history from a solid evangelical perspective.

Textbooks, histories, introductions, etc.
First off, our textbook, Eugene Merrill’s Kingdom of Priests: A History of Old Testament Israel (2nd ed; Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Academic, 2008), an excellent work by a solid evangelical scholar. One caveat: it only goes up to the return from exile.

For a very handy quick reference, I have benefited greatly from John Sailhamer’s Old Testament History (Zondervan Quick Reference Library; Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1998).  

We also have F. F. Bruce’s Israel and the Nations: The History of Israel from the Exodus to the Fall of the Second Temple (revised by David F. Payne; Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1997) as well as the very helpful Holman Bible Atlas: A Complete Guide to the Expansive Geography of Biblical History, both of which go up through New Testament times (I’m requiring the Holman Bible Atlas in addition to Merrill’s book for my students).
Let me also recommend Ian Provan; V. Philips Long; and Tremper Longman III’s A Biblical History of Israel (Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox, 2003) and K. A. Kitchen’s On the Reliability of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, Mich. Eerdmans, 2003). Meanwhile, if you need an Old Testament Intro, pride of place in my library goes to Eugene H. Merrill, Mark F. Rooker, and Michael Grisanti’s The World and the Word: An Introduction to the Old Testament (Nashville, Tenn.: B&H Academic, 2011). I’m slightly biased, since I got to grade for Dr. Rooker for one semester (while Dr. Robinson was on sabbatical) and enjoyed interacting with him.

Key Journals
For students of Hebrew History, here are some key journals to look out for (besides the obvious general journals like JBL, JETS, BBR, Tyndale Bulletin, etc.)
Biblical Archaeological Review
Jewish Bible Quarterly
Journal for the Evangelical Study of the Old Testament (brand new!)
Journal for the Study of the Old Testament
Journal of Semitic Studies
Old Testament Essays

Relevant JETS Articles
As a service to my students, since our library currently does not have EBSCO, I went through and listed every single article in the Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society that dealt with Hebrew history (these are available for free up until 2011 from www.etsjets.org) Here they are (please let me know if I missed any!) I did not use any search engine; I did this the “old fashioned” way.
(you should be able to search within this blog post for any particular articles that would be helpful for your research).

Akers, Matthew. "What's in a Name? An Examination of the Usage of the Term
'Hebrew' in the Old Testament." JETS 55 (December 2012).
Aling, Charles F. "The Biblical City of Ramses." JETS 25 (June 1982).
Aling, Charles F. "The Sphinx Stele of Thutmose IV and the Date of the Exodus." JETS 22 (June
Allen, Ronald Barclay. "Elijah the Broken Prophet." JETS 22 (September 1979).
Amaya, Ismael E. "The Bible and God's Revelation in History." JETS 14 (June
Archer, Gleason L. "AN Eighteenth Dynasty Ramses." JETS 17 (March 1974).
Arnold, Bill T. "The Amalekite's Report of Saul's Death: Political Intrigue or
Incompatible Sources?" JETS 32 (September 1989)
Arnold, Clint E. "Sceva, Solomon, and Shamanism: The Jewish Roots of the
Problem at Colossae." JETS 55 (March 2012).
Battenfield, James R. "A Consideration of the Identity of the Pharaoh of Genesis
47." JETS 15 (June 1972).
Beale, G. K. "The Use of Hosea 11:1 in Matthew 2:15: One More Time." JETS 55
(December 2012).
Beck, John A. "Why Do Joshua's Readers Keep Crossing the River? The
Narrative-Geographical Shaping of Joshua 3-4." JETS 48 (December 2005).
Beitzel, Barry J. "Herod the Great: Another Snapshot of His Treachery?" JETS 57
(June 2014).
Billington, Clyde E. "Goliath and the Exodus Giants: How Tall Were They?" JETS
50 (September 2007).
Block, Daniel I. "Israel's House: Reflections on the Use of BYT YSR'L in the Old
Testament in the Light of Its Ancient Near Eastern Environment." JETS 28
Block, Daniel I. "'You Shall Not Covet Your Neighbor's Wife:' A Study in
Deuteronomic Domestic Ideology." JETS 53 (September 2010).
Block, Daniel I. "Will the Real Gideon Please Stand Up? Narrative Style and
Intention in Judges 6-9." JETS 40 (September 1997).
Block, Daniel I. "'What Do These stones Mean?' The Riddle of Deuteronomy 27."
JETS 56 (March 2013).
Block, Daniel I. "Recovering the Voice of Moses: The Genesis of Deuteronomy."
JETS 44 (September 2001).
Bruno, Christopher R. "'Jesus Is Our Jubilee' . . . But How? The OT Background
and Lukan Fulfillment of the Ethics of Jubilees." JETS 53 (March 2010).
Bullock, C. Hassell. "Ezekiel, Bridge Between the Testaments." JETS 25 (March
Chase, Mitchell L. "The Genesis of Resurrection Hope: Exploring Its Early
Presence and Deep Roots." JETS 57 (September 2014).
Chávalas, Mark W. "The Historian, the Believer, and the OT: A Study in the
Supposed Conflict of Faith and Reason." JETS 36 (June 1993).
Chávalas, Mark W. "Recent Trends in the Study of Israelite History." JETS 38
(June 1995).
Cheung, Alex T. M. "The Priest as the Redeemed Man: A Biblical-Theological
Study of the Priesthood." JETS 29 (September 1986).
Christensen, Duane L., and Marcel Narucki. "The Mosaic Authorship of the
Pentateuch." JETS 32 (December 1989).
Chisholm, Robert B., Jr. "The Chronology of the Book of Judges: A Linguistic
Clue to Solving a Pesky Problem." JETS 52 (June 2009).
Chisholm, Robert B., Jr. "In Defense of Paneling as a Clue to the Chronology of
Judges: A Critique of Andrew Steinmann's Reply." JETS 53 (June 2010).
Chisholm, Robert. "When Prophecy Appears to Fail, Check Your Hermeneutic"
JETS 53 (September 2010).
Collins, John J. "Prophecy and Fulfillment in the Qumran Scrolls." JETS 30
(September 1987).
Culver, Robert D. "The Old Testament as Messianic Prophecy." BETS 7 (Summer
Curtis, Edward M. "Structure, Style and Context as a Key to Interpreting Jacob's
Encounter at Peniel." JETS 30 (June 1987).
Curtis, Edward M. "The Theological Basis for the Prohibition of Images in the Old
Testament." JETS 28 (September 1985).
Dalman, Rodger. "Egypt and Early Israel's Cultural Setting: A Quest for Evidential
Possibilities." JETS 51 (September 2008).
Davids, Peter H. "What Glasses Are You Wearing? Reading Hebrew Narratives
through Second Temple Lenses." JETS 55 (December 2012).
Day, Adam Warner. "Eating Before the Lord: A Theology of Food According to
Deuteronomy." JETS 57 (March 2014).
Dean, David Andrew. "Covenant, Conditionality, and Consequence: New
Terminology and a Case Study in the Abrahamic Covenant." JETS 57 (June
DeRouchie, Jason S. "The Blessing-Commission, the Promised Offspring, and the
Toledot Structure of Genesis." JETS 56 (June 2013).
Dillard, Raymond. "The Reign of Asa (2 Chronicles 14-16): An Example of the
Chronicler's Theological Method." JETS 23 (September 1980).
Donaldson, Terry L. "Levitical Messianology in Late Judaism: Origins,
Development and Decline." JETS 24 (September 1981).
Dumbrell, William J. "The Content and Significance of the Books of Samuel:
Their Place and Purpose within the Former Prophets." JETS 33 (March
Dumbrell, William J. "The Purpose of the Books of Chronicles." JETS 27
(September 1984).
Dyck, Elmer. "Jonah Among the Prophets: A Study in Canonical Context." JETS
33 (March 1990).
Emmrich, Martin. "The Case against Moses Reopened." JETS 46 (March 2003).
Emmrich, Martin. "The Symbolism of the Lion and the Bees; Another Ironic Twist
in the Samson Cycle." JETS 44 (March 2001).
Enns, Peter. "William Henry Green and the Authorship of the Pentateuch: Some
Historical Considerations." JETS 45 (September 2002).
Ferguson, Paul. "Nebuchadnezzar, Gilgamesh, and the "Babylonian Job.'" JETS 37
(September 1994).
Freeman, Hobart E. "The Problem of the Efficacy of Old Testament Sacrifices."
BETS 5 (Summer 1962).
Ferris, Paul Wayne, Jr. "The Manna Narrative of Exodus 16:1-10." JETS 18
(September 1975).
Graves, Michael. "The Public Reading of Scripture in Early Judaism." JETS 50
(September 2007).
Greene, Joseph R. "The Spirit in the Temple: Bridging the Gap Between Old
Testament Absence and New Testament Assumption." JETS 55 (December
Grisanti, Michael A. "Recent Archaeological Discoveries that Lend Credence to
the Historicity of the Scriptures." JETS 56 (2013).
Goswell, Greg. "The Order of the Books in the Hebrew Bible." JETS 51
(December 2008).
Goswell, Greg. "The Temple Theme in the Book of Daniel." JETS 55 (September
Groningen, G. Van. "Interpretation of Genesis." JETS 13 (December 1970).
Groningen, G. Van. "Joshua-II Kings: Deuteronomistic? Priestly? Or Prophetic
Writing?" JETS 12 (March 1969).
Harbin, Michael A. "Jubilee and Social Justice." JETS 54 (December 2011).
Harris, Laird. "Chronicles and the Canon in New Testament Times." JETS 33
(March 1990).
Harris, R. Laird. "Continuity in the Old Testament Historical Literature." JETS 14
(September 1971).
Harris, R. Laird. "Factors Promoting the Formation of the Old Testament Canon."
BETS 10 (Winter 1967).
Hauser, Alan J. "Unity and Diversity in Early Israel before Samuel." JETS 22
(December 1979).
Hawkins, Ralph K. "The Date of the Exodus-Conquest Is Still an Open Question:
A Response to Rodger Young and Bryant Wood." JETS 51 (June 2008).
Hawkins, Ralph K. "Propositions for Evangelical Acceptance of a Late-Date
Exodus-Conquest: Biblical Data and the Royal Scarabs from Mt. Ebal." JETS 50 (March 2007).
Hays, J. Daniel. "Reconsidering the Height of Goliath." JETS 48 (December 2005).
Hays, J. Daniel. "The Height of Goliath: A Response to Clyde Billington." JETS
50 (September 2007).
Heck, Joel D. "Issachar: Slave or Freeman? (Gen 49:14-15)." JETS 29 (December
Hellerman, Joseph. "Purity and Nationalism in  Second Temple Literature: 1-2
Maccabees and Jubilees." JETS 46 (September 2003).
Hilber, John W. "Theology of Worship in Exodus 24." JETS 39 (June 1996).
Hildebrand, David R. "A Summary of Findings in Support of an Early Date for the
So-Called Priestly Materials of the Pentateuch." JETS 29 (June 1986).
Hill, Andrew E. "A Jonadab Connection in the Absalom Conspiracy?" JETS 30
(December 1987).
Hill, Andrew E. "The Ebal Ceremony as Hebrew Land Grant?" JETS 31
(December 1988).
Hill, Andrew E., and Gary A. Herion. "Functional Jehovah-ism and Social Control
in the Early Israelite Monarch." JETS 29 (September 1986).
Hill, Joseph A. "The Bible and Non-Inspired Sources." BETS 3 (Fall 1960).
Hoffmeier, James K. "What Is the Biblical Date for the Exodus? A Response to
Bryant Wood." JETS 50 (2007).
Hoffner, Harry A. "Ancient Views of Prophecy and Fulfillment: Mesopotamia and
Asia Minor." JETS 30 (September 1987).
Horton, Stanley M. "Critical Note: A Suggestion Concerning the Chronology of
Solomon's Reign." BETS 4 (October 1961).
House, Paul. "Investing in the Ruins: Jeremiah and Theological Vocation." JETS
56 (March 2013).
Howard, David M., Jr. "Sodom and Gomorrah Revisited." JETS 27 (December
Howard, David M., Jr. "'Three Days' in Joshua 1-3: Resolving a Chronological
Conundrum." JETS  41 (December 1998).
Howard, David M., Jr. "The Transfer of Power from Saul to David in 1 Sam 16:13-
14." JETS 32 (December 1989)
Jeffers, Adrian. "Ideal Versus Real History in the Book of Joshua." JETS 12
(September 1969).
Johnson, Adam. "A Temple Framework of the Atonement." JETS 54 (June 2011).
Johansen, John H. "The Prophet Hosea: His Marriage and Message." JETS 14
(September 1971).
Johnson, Benjamin J. M. "What Type of Son is Samson? Reading Judges 13 as a
Biblical Type-Scene." JETS 53 (June 2010).
Kaiser, Walter C., Jr. "The Davidic Promise and the Inclusion of the Gentiles
(Amos 9:9-15 and Acts 15:13-18): A Test Passage for Theological
Systems." JETS 20 (June 1977).
Kaiser, Walter C., Jr. "Is It the Case that Christ Is the Same Object of Faith in the
Old Testament? (Genesis 15:1-6). JETS 55 (June 2012).
Kaiser, Walter C., Jr. "The Old Promise and the New Covenant: Jeremiah 31:31-
34." JETS 15 (March 1972).
Kaiser, Walter C., Jr. "The Present State of Old Testament Studies." JETS 18 (June
Karlberg, Mark W. "The Significance of Israel in Biblical Typology." JETS 31
(September 1988).
Kessler, John A. "The Shaking of the Nations; An Eschatological View." JETS 30
(June 1987).
Koorevaar, Hendrik J. "The Exile and Return Model: A Proposal for the Original
Macrostructure of the Hebrew Canon." JETS 57 (September 2014).
Kuruvilla, Abraham. "The Aqedah (Genesis 22): What Is the Author Doing with
What He Is Saying?" JETS 55 (September 2012).
Lee, Chee-Chiew. "G'YM in Genesis 35:11 and the Abrahamic Promise of
Blessings for the Nations." JETS 52 (September 2009).
Longman, Tremper, III. "The Literary Approach to the Study of the Old
Testament: Promise and Pitfalls." JETS 28 (December 1985).
Luc, Alex. "A Theology of Ezekiel: God's Name and Israel's History." JETS 26
(June 1983).
Lunn, Nicholas P. "Allusions to the Joseph Narrative in the Synoptic Gospels and
Acts: Foundations of a Biblical Type." JETS 55 (March 2012).
MacRae, Allan A. "Abraham and the Stars." BETS 8 (Summer 1965).
Martens, Elmer A. "Tackling Old Testament Theology." JETS 20 (June 1977).
Master, Jonathan. "Exodus 32 as an Argument for Traditional Theism." JETS 45
(December 2002).
McComiskey, Douglas S. "Exile and Restoration from Exile in the Scriptural
Quotations and Allusions of Jesus." JETS 53 (December 2010).
McFall, Leslie. "The Chronology of Saul and David," JETS 53 (September 2010).
McFall, Leslie. "Do the Sixty-Nine Weeks of Daniel Date the Messianic Mission
of Nehemiah or Jesus?" JETS 52 (December 2009).
Merrill, Eugene H. "Name Terms of the Old Testament Prophet of God." JETS 14
(December 1971).
Merrill, Eugene. "Old Testament Scholarship and the Man in the Street: Whence
and Whiter?" JETS 54 (March 2011).
Merrill, Eugene. Sabbatai Zvi and Jewish Messianism." JETS 16 (September
Merrill, Eugene. "The Sign of Jonah." JETS 23 (March 1980).
Neiderhiser, Edward A. "2 Samuel 20:8-10: A Note for a Commentary." JETS 24
(September 1981).
Newman, Robert C. "Daniel's Seventy Weeks and the Old Testament Sabbath-Year
Cycle." JETS 16 (December 1973).
Nichols, David. "The Ancient Near East 853-745 B.C." JETS 18 (December 1975).
Niehaus, Jeffrey J. "Covenant: An Idea in the Mind of God." JETS 52 (June 2009).
Niehaus, Jeffrey J. "Covenant and Narrative, God and Time." JETS 53 (September
Niehaus, Jeffrey J. "God's Covenant with Abraham." JETS 56 (June 2013).
Niehaus, Jeffrey J. "Joshua and Ancient Near Eastern Warfare." JETS 31 (March
O'Brian, David. "David the Hebrew." JETS 23 (September 1980).
Parry, Jason Thomas. "Desolation of the Temple and Messianic Enthronement in
Daniel 11:36-12:3." JETS 54 (September 2011).
Patterson, Richard D., and Michael E. Travers. "Nahum: Poet Laureate of the
Minor Prophets." JETS 33 (December 1990).
Patterson, Richard D. "An Overlooked Scriptural Paradox: The Pseudosorites."
JETS 53 (March 2010).
Patterson, Richard D. "Holding on to Daniel's Court Tales," JETS 36 (December
Patterson, Richard D. "The Old Testament Use of an Archetype: The Trickster."
JETS 42 (September 1999).
Payne, Barton. "The Arrangement of Jeremiah's Prophecies." BETS 7 (Fall 1964).
Payne, J. Barton. "Faith and History in the Old Testament." BETS 11 (Summer
Payne, J. Barton. "The Goal of Daniel's Seventy Weeks." JETS 21 (June 1978).
Peterson, Brian. "Ezekiel's Rhetoric: Ancient Near Eastern Building Protocol and
Shame and Honor as the Keys in Identifying the Builder of the
Eschatological Temple." JETS 56 (December 2013).
Petrovich, Douglas. "The Dating of Hazor's Destruction in Joshua 11 by Way of
Biblical, Archaeological, and Epigraphical Evidence." JETS 51 (September
Pierce, Ronald W. "Male/Female Leadership and Korah's Revolt: An Analogy?"
JETS 30 (March 1987).
Proffitt, D., III. "Moses and Anthropology: A New View of the Exodus." JETS 27
(March 1984).
Rea, John. "The Time of the Oppression and the Exodus." BETS 3 (Summer 1960).
Reist, Irwin W. "The Theological Significance of the Exodus." JETS 12 (December
Rhoads, John H. "Josephus Misdated the Census of Quirinus." JETS 54 (March
Rogers, Cleon. "Moses: Meek or Miserable?" JETS 29 (September 1986).
Rowley, Matthew. "The Epistemology of Sacralized Violence in the Exodus and
Conquest." JETS 57 (March 2014).
Ruthven, Jon. "A Note on Elijah's 'Fire from the Lord.'" JETS 12 (June 1969).
Sailhamer, John H. "The Messiah and the Hebrew Bible." JETS 44 (March 2001).
Scanlin, Harold P. "The Emergence of the Writing Prophets in Israel in the Mid-
Eight Century." JETS 21 (December 1978).
Schnabel, Eckhard J. "Israel, the People of God, and the Nations." JETS 45 (March
Schultz, Arnold C. "Frontier Issues in Contemporary Theology: The Old
Testament." BETS 9 (Spring 1966).
Smick, Elmer B. "Old Testament Cross-Culturalism: Paradigmatic or Enigmatic?"
JETS 32 (March 1989).
Smith, Gary V. "Isaiah 40-55: Which Audience Was Addressed?" JETS 54
(December 2011).
Sprinkle, Joe M. "Law and Narrative in Exodus 19-24." JETS 47 (June 2004).
Steinmann, Andrew E. "A Chronological Note: The Return of the Exiles Under
Sheshbazzar and Zerubbabel (Ezra 1-2). JETS 51 (September 2008).
Steinmann, Andrew W. "The Chronology of 2 Kings 15-18." JETS 30 (December
Steinmann, Andrew W. "Literary Clues in Judges: A Response to Robert
Chisholm." JETS 53 (June 2010).
Steinmann, Andrew W. "The Mysterious Numbers of the Book of Judges." JETS
48 (September 2005).
 Tanner, J. Paul. "Daniel's 'King of the North': Do We Owe Russia an Apology?"
JETS 35 (September 1992).
Tanner, J. Paul. "Rethinking Ezekiel's Invasion by Gog." JETS 39 (March 1996).
Tenney, Merril C. "The Bible and History." JETS 14 (June 1971).
Trimm, Charlie. "Did the Lord Condemn the Nations When He Elected Israel? The
Lord's Disposition Toward Non-Israelites in the Torah." JETS 55 (2012).
Ulrich, Dean R. "The Framing Function of the Narratives about Zelophehad's
Daughters." JETS 41 (December 1998).
Vogt, Peter T. "Social Justice and the Vision of Deuteronomy." JETS 51 (March
Walton, John H. "New Observations on the Date of Isaiah." JETS 28 (1985).
Walton, John H. "The Decree of Darius the Mede in Daniel 6." JETS 31
(September 1988).
Walton, John H. "The Four Kingdoms of Daniel." JETS 29 (1986).
Warning, Wilfried. "Terminological Patters and Genesis 39." JETS 44 (September
Wegner, Paul D. "How Many Virgin Births Are in the Bible? (Isaiah 7:14): A
Prophetic Pattern Approach." JETS 54 (September 2011).
Wolf, Herbert. "'The Desire of All Nations' in Haggai 2:7: Messianic or Not?"
JETS 19 (June 1976).
Wood, Bryant G. "The Biblical Date for the Exodus Is 1446 BC: A Response to
James Hoffmeier." JETS 50 (June 2007).
Wood, Bryant G. "Hittites and Hethites: A Proposed Solution to an Etymological
Conundrum." JETS 54 (June 2011).
Wood, Bryant G. "The Rise and Fall of the 13th-Century Exodus Conquest
Theory." JETS  48 (September 2005).
Wood, Leon J. "Ecstasy and Israel's Prophets." BETS 9 (Summer 1966).
Wood, Leon J. "Simeon, the Tenth Tribe of Israel." JETS 14 (December 1971).
Young, Rodger C. "Tables of Reign Lengths from the Hebrew Court Recorders."
JETS 48 (June 2005).
Young, Rodger C. "When Did Jerusalem Fall?" JETS 47 (March 2004).
Young, Rodger C. "When Did Solomon Die?" JETS 46 (December 2003).
Young, Rodger C. "When Was Samaria Captured? The Need for Precision in
Biblical Chronologies." JETS 47 (December 2004).
Young, Rodger C., and Bryant G. Wood. "A Critical Analysis of the Evidence
from Ralph Hawkins for a Late-Date Exodus Conquest." JETS 51 (June
Youngblood, Ronald. "Moses and the King of Siam." JETS 16 (December 1973).
Zimmer, Robert G. "The Temple of God." JETS 18 (March 1957).